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Kaziranga National Park

Kaziranga National Park is located in Golaghat ang Nagaon district of Assam covering an area of 756 sq km. The elevation of the park ranges from the 131 ft to 262 ft and circumscribed by the river Brahmaputra and Mora Dilphu. The national park is also a sanctuary which host the two third of one horned rhinoceroses is world heritage site. The park has been the theme of the several books and the documentaries. Census conducted by the Forest Department of the Government of Assam and some recognized wildlife NGOs, the population of rhinos in the park are 2,401.

History

When the Mary Curzon, wife of Lord Curzon of Kedleston visited the area saw  a single rhinoceros, for which the area was renowned. She asked her husband to take urgent measures to protect the species, and on 1 June 1905, the Kaziranga Proposed Reserve Forest was created with an area of 232 sq km.

  • Kaziranga was declared as the "Reserve Forest" in the year 1908 and was redesignated "Kaziranga Game Sactuary " in the year 1916 till 1938.
  • In 1950, the park  was renamed the "Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary" by P.D Stracey, the forest conservationist.
  • The Assam state government declared the park as the national park on passing  the Assam National Park Act of 1968.
  • UNESCO declared the park as "World Heritage Site" for its unique nature environment.

Flora

The four types of vegetation are there that exist in the park :

  • Alluvial Inundated Grassland
  • Alluvial Savana Woodland
  • Tropical Semi Evergreen Forest
  • Tropical Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest

Based on the recorded data for 1986, the coverage percentage of pattern is as follow

  • tall Grass : 41%
  • short grass : 11%
  • open jungles : 29%
  • swamps : 4%
  • river & water bodies : 8%
  • sand : 6%

The Eastern and the Western area of the park are at the different altitude. The tall grass is found in eastern part of the park and the short grass is found in the western part of the grass covering the flood created ponds. Different types of aquatic flora are present in the lakes.

Fauna

35 mammalian species are present in the national park of which 15 are declared as threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature(IUCN) red list. Large herbivores include elephant, gaur, sambar while small herbivores include wild boar, hod deer, indian muntjac. With a population of 118 according to latest census, Kaziranga is declared as the "Tiger Reserve" in the year 2006 and has highest density of tigers. Kaziranga is declared as the Important Bird Area by Birdlife International as it is a home to many migratory birds. The largest snakes rock python, king kobra and reticulated python inhabit in the park. Some of the faunas that exist in the park are as follow :

  • Leopards
  • Indian Tiger
  • Bengal Fox
  • Indian Gray Mongoose
  • Monitor Lizard
  • Brown Tortoise

Climate

  • The maximum and minimum temperature in Summer ranges from 37°C to 7°C.
  • The maximum and minimum temperature in Summer ranges from 25°C to 5°C.

Best Time to Reach

November to February is the best time to visit the Kaziranga national park.

How to Reach

By Air - Johrat in Assam is the nearest airport to park.

By Rail - The nearest railhead is in Helem which 30 km away.

By Road - Park can be reached via National Highway 37 and the nearest bus stand is Kohara.